Category Archives: analog3

BeagleBone Green: Enable CAN on Startup

Three steps:

  1. Enable CAN overlay by configuring cape manager
  2. Configure network interface
  3. Install startup program

1. Enable CAN overlay

Add following line in /etc/default/capemgr


2. Configure network interface

Add following lines in /etc/network/interfaces

auto can0
iface can0 inet manual
    pre-up /sbin/ip link set $IFACE type can bitrate 1000000 listen-only off
    up /sbin/ifconfig $IFACE up
    down /sbin/ifconfig $IFACE down

3. Install startup program

Setting the CAN interface to /etc/network/interface does not enable the CAN interface on startup for some reason. In order to workaround this problem, I installed a startup program as follows.

Following link was helpful:

Running a script on Beaglebone Black boot/ startup

The startup script to run on startup is as follows. This script also turns off wi-fi power management, thus I removed a cron entry I added before to disable the power management.

naoki@beaglebone:~$ cat /usr/bin/

ifup -a
/sbin/iwconfig wlan0 power off

Following are the steps to create and enable a service that runs on startup.

  • Create the service
    vi /lib/systemd/startup.service
  • Edit the above file as necessary to invoke the different functionalities like network. Enable these only if the code needs that particular service. Disable unwanted ones to decrease boot time.
    Description=runs startup script after startup
  • Create a symbolic link to let the device know the location of the service.
    cd /etc/systemd/system/
    ln -s /lib/systemd/startup.service startup.service
  • Make systemd reload the configuration file, start the service immediately (helps to see if the service is functioning properly) and enable the unit files specified in the command line.
    systemctl daemon-reload
    systemctl start scriptname.service
    systemctl enable scriptname.service
  • Restart BBB immediately to see if it runs as intended.


BeagleBoneGreen: Disabling Wi-Fi Power Management Permanently

The operating system is Debian. This is a dirty solution but it does work anyway.

root@beaglebone:~# cat /etc/pm/power.d/wlan0_pm_off

[ -x /sbin/iwconfig ] || exit 0
[ -n "`/sbin/iwconfig 2>/dev/null | grep wlan0`" ] || exit 0

/sbin/iwconfig wlan0 power off
root@beaglebone:~# crontab -l | grep -v "^#"
*/1 * * * * /etc/pm/power.d/wlan0_pm_off
root@beaglebone:~# iwconfig wlan0
wlan0     IEEE 802.11abgn  ESSID:"*****"  
          Power Management:off

Test CAN connection between BeagleBone and MIDI/CAN converter

1. Enabled CAN at 1Mbps on BeagleBone:

Following operations seem to be necessary every BeagleBone boot. TBD to setup auto configuration on startup.

root@beaglebone:~# echo BB-DCAN1 > /sys/devices/platform/bone_capemgr/slots
root@beaglebone:~# ip link set can0 up type can bitrate 500000
root@beaglebone:~# ip link set can0 up type can bitrate 1000000
root@beaglebone:~# ifconfig can0
can0      Link encap:UNSPEC  HWaddr 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00  
          UP RUNNING NOARP  MTU:16  Metric:1
          RX packets:2 errors:0 dropped:2 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:10 
          RX bytes:16 (16.0 B)  TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)
root@beaglebone:~# ip -d -s link show can0
4: can0: <NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP,ECHO> mtu 16 qdisc pfifo_fast state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT group default qlen 10
    link/can  promiscuity 0 
    can state ERROR-ACTIVE (berr-counter tx 0 rx 127) restart-ms 0 
	  bitrate 1000000 sample-point 0.750 
	  tq 83 prop-seg 4 phase-seg1 4 phase-seg2 3 sjw 1
	  c_can: tseg1 2..16 tseg2 1..8 sjw 1..4 brp 1..1024 brp-inc 1
	  clock 24000000
	  re-started bus-errors arbit-lost error-warn error-pass bus-off
	  0          0          0          1          1          0         
    RX: bytes  packets  errors  dropped overrun mcast   
    16         2        0       2       0       0      
    TX: bytes  packets  errors  dropped carrier collsns 
    0          0        0       0       0       0      

2. Wired CAN ports

Used MCP2551 for CAN transceiver.

Pin 24 -> CAN RX
Pin 26 -> CAN TX
Pin 2 -> GND
Pin 6 -> VDD 5V

3. Connected with MIDI/CAN converter via CAN bus

See the picture above.

4. Monitor MIDI/CAN converter via serial interface

naoki-macbook:~ naoki$ screen /dev/tty.usbmodem14244421

5. Monitor packets on BeagleBone and play

root@beaglebone:~# candump can0
can0 100 [3] 09 4A 46
can0 100 [3] 08 4A 00

Serial port monitor:

note on  [ 01 00] 4a
note off [ 01 00] 4a

Enable CAN on the BeagleBone Green

I’ve tried to enable CAN on my BeagleBone Green board. I had to stop the work before verification, because my logic analyzer is unavailable now. I record what I did in this article to make things reproducible when the logic analyzer is back.

There are several helpful links:!category-topic/beagleboard/can/SjWwVngIPh8

Readings to understand device tree overlay:

Device Tree for Dummies:

Device Tree Overlays (in adafruit)

Here are what I did:

# make a workspace
root@beaglebone:~# mkdir can
root@beaglebone:~# cd can
root@beaglebone:~/can# pwd

# check if CAN is enabled ... no
root@beaglebone:~/can# dmesg | grep can

# take backup of the original device tree blob file for CAN
root@beaglebone:~/can# cp /lib/firmware/BB-CAN1-00A0.dtbo BB-CAN1-00A0.dtbo.orig

# make the device tree overlay
root@beaglebone:~/can# vi BB-DCAN1-00A0.dts
root@beaglebone:~/can# cat !$
cat BB-DCAN1-00A0.dts
/ {
    compatible = "ti,beaglebone", "ti,beaglebone-black";
    /* identification */
    part-number = "dcan1pinmux";
    fragment@0 {
        target = <&am33xx_pinmux>;
        __overlay__ {
            dcan1_pins_s0: dcan1_pins_s0 {
                pinctrl-single,pins = <
                    0x180 0x12  /* d_can1_tx, SLEWCTRL_FAST | INPUT_PULLUP | MODE2 */
                    0x184 0x32  /* d_can1_rx, SLEWCTRL_FAST | RECV_ENABLE | INPUT_PULLUP | MODE2 */
    fragment@1 {
        target = <&dcan1>;
        __overlay__ {
             #address-cells = <1>;
             #size-cells = <0>;
             status = "okay";
             pinctrl-names = "default";
             pinctrl-0 = <&dcan1_pins_s0>;

# install the new device tree blob for CAN
root@beaglebone:~/can# dtc -O dtb -o BB-DCAN1-00A0.dtbo -b 0 -@ BB-DCAN1-00A0.dts
root@beaglebone:~/can# ls
BB-CAN1-00A0.dtbo.orig    BB-DCAN1-00A0.dtbo  BB-DCAN1-00A0.dts
root@beaglebone:~/can# cp BB-DCAN1-00A0.dtbo /lib/firmware/
root@beaglebone:~/can# cmp BB-DCAN1-00A0.dtbo /lib/firmware/BB-DCAN1-00A0.dtbo

# add the device
root@beaglebone:/lib/firmware# cat /sys/devices/platform/bone_capemgr/slots
 0: PF----  -1 
 1: PF----  -1 
 2: PF----  -1 
 3: PF----  -1 
root@beaglebone:~/can# echo BB-DCAN1 > /sys/devices/platform/bone_capemgr/slots 
root@beaglebone:~/can# cat !$
cat /sys/devices/platform/bone_capemgr/slots
 0: PF----  -1 
 1: PF----  -1 
 2: PF----  -1 
 3: PF----  -1 
 4: P-O-L-   0 Override Board Name,00A0,Override Manuf,BB-DCAN1

# check dmesg ... looks fine
root@beaglebone:~/can# dmesg | tail -n15
[   25.499860] wlan0: send auth to 00:1d:73:33:47:a0 (try 1/3)
[   25.522620] wlan0: authenticated
[   25.524815] wl18xx_driver wlan0: disabling HT/VHT due to WEP/TKIP use
[   25.528911] wlan0: associate with 00:1d:73:33:47:a0 (try 1/3)
[   25.538576] wlan0: RX AssocResp from 00:1d:73:33:47:a0 (capab=0x431 status=0 aid=4)
[   25.764831] wlan0: associated
[   25.765114] IPv6: ADDRCONF(NETDEV_CHANGE): wlan0: link becomes ready
[   26.579282] wlcore: Association completed.
[ 3395.588267] bone_capemgr bone_capemgr: part_number 'BB-DCAN1', version 'N/A'
[ 3395.588337] bone_capemgr bone_capemgr: slot #4: override
[ 3395.588380] bone_capemgr bone_capemgr: Using override eeprom data at slot 4
[ 3395.588425] bone_capemgr bone_capemgr: slot #4: 'Override Board Name,00A0,Override Manuf,BB-DCAN1'
[ 3395.613523] bone_capemgr bone_capemgr: slot #4: dtbo 'BB-DCAN1-00A0.dtbo' loaded; overlay id #0
[ 3395.648848] CAN device driver interface
[ 3395.689001] c_can_platform 481d0000.can: c_can_platform device registered (regs=fa1d0000, irq=192)

# load CAN modules
root@beaglebone:~/can# sudo modprobe can
root@beaglebone:~/can# sudo modprobe can-dev
root@beaglebone:~/can# sudo modprobe can-raw
root@beaglebone:~/can# lsmod | grep can
can_raw                 5852  0 
can                    28397  1 can_raw
c_can_platform          6602  0 
c_can                   9577  1 c_can_platform
can_dev                11663  1 c_can

# Startup the CAN interface. Set CAN channel rate 500kbps.
root@beaglebone:~# ip link set can0 up type can bitrate 500000
root@beaglebone:~# ifconfig can0
can0      Link encap:UNSPEC  HWaddr 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00  
          UP RUNNING NOARP  MTU:16  Metric:1
          RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:10 
          RX bytes:0 (0.0 B)  TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

# Check the device status. Status UNKNOWN doesn't sound right...
root@beaglebone:~/can# ip -d -s link show can0
4: can0: <NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP,ECHO> mtu 16 qdisc pfifo_fast state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT group default qlen 10
    link/can  promiscuity 0 
    can state ERROR-ACTIVE (berr-counter tx 0 rx 0) restart-ms 0 
      bitrate 125000 sample-point 0.875 
      tq 500 prop-seg 6 phase-seg1 7 phase-seg2 2 sjw 1
      c_can: tseg1 2..16 tseg2 1..8 sjw 1..4 brp 1..1024 brp-inc 1
      clock 24000000
      re-started bus-errors arbit-lost error-warn error-pass bus-off
      0          0          0          0          0          0         
    RX: bytes  packets  errors  dropped overrun mcast   
    0          0        0       0       0       0      
    TX: bytes  packets  errors  dropped carrier collsns 
    0          0        0       0       0       0      

Then I have to stop here.

BeagleBone notes

How to login from MacOS:

  1. Connect to the BeagleBone by a USB cable.
  2. MacOS restart is necessary for some reason.
  3. SSH to

WiFi setup:

Use connmanctl as described in /etc/network/interfaces.

root@beaglebone:~# connmanctl
connmanctl> tether wifi disable
Error disabling wifi tethering: Already disabled
connmanctl> scan wifi
Scan completed for wifi
connmanctl> services
Analog20 wifi_xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx_managed_psk
connmanctl> agent on
Agent registered
connmanctl> connect wifi_xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx_managed_psk

… and so on

Following links give useful information: (in Japanese)

The wlan0 device power management can be turned off by

# iwconfig wlan0 power off

TBD how to turn this off permanently.

Take SD backup

  1. Insert the SD into the MacBook
  2. “diskutil list” to know the path to the device.
  3. run “sudo dd if=<device_name> conv=sync,noerror | gzip -c > archive.img.gz

Following link is helpful to know how to backup disks in several styles:

Connecting to the host via serial port

Useful when the SSH access has a problem:

$ ls /dev/tty.*
$ screen 

Use USB-UART Bridge on PSoC CY8CKIT-049-42xx Kit

You need miniprog3 to program this, despite typical programming to this kit is via boot loader.

1. Put a SCB UART component. Change baud rate to 9600.

2. Assign pins as follows:

UART RX : P4[0]
UART TX : P4[1]


3. And then, here is the main.c source code

int main()
    CyGlobalIntEnable; /* Enable global interrupts. */

    /* Place your initialization/startup code here (e.g. MyInst_Start()) */
    UART_1_UartPutString("Hello world from CY8CKIT-049-42xx\r\n");

        /* Place your application code here. */

4. Build it, program it, and connect the CY8CKIT-049-42xx to the PC.

That’s it.

Generating MCP2515 SPI ‘READ’ Operation Request Using PSoC 42xx

PSoC 42xx provides SPI component that supports up to 4MHz clock speed. Communicating with MCP2515 via this component, however, is not straightforward when you try the highest clock speed.

The problem is concept of ‘operation’ of MCP2515. An operation consists of multiple SPI bytes bundled by ‘enable’ signal on the CS pin. Lowering the CS pin initiates an operation and it must stay low during the data transmission. See following timing chart quoted from the MCP2515 datasheet.


The PSoC SPI component lacks direct control on the CS pin signal. The component automatically lowers the CS level when the write API puts a byte to Tx FIFO and the component’s internal logic raises the CS level when all FIFO values are consumed. But auto-generated API functions are not fast enough due to overhead to make the functions generic. Then, the CS signal may split during an operation when Tx FIFO becomes empty due to the API failing to catch up with the desired speed.

I wrote a function that generates a valid READ operation frame and retrieves returned bytes. The strategy is:

  • Use lower-level component interfaces to avoid overhead.
  • The function pushes sending bytes to Tx FIFO as fast as possible to keep it non-empty during the operation.
  • Concurrently read data from Rx FIFO as fast as possible to avoid FIFO overflow.

There are limitations to use this functions:

  • Both Rx and Tx buffer sizes of the SPI component must be 4. PSoC Creator generates software buffer when the sizes are larger than 4. That makes source code management too complicated.
  • The first two bytes in output array are dummy that do not mean anything. Actual retrieve data starts from the third element.
  • The function may need to disable interrupts during the operation, though it is still missing in the implementation.

Here is the source code. In this example code, the SPI component name is ‘SPIM_CAN’ which is a master SPI component (non SCB).

#define CAN_CTL_READ 0x03

void mcp2515_read(uint8_t address, uint8_t data[], uint8_t length)
    /* initialization */
    uint8_t to_write = length;
    length += 2;

    /* flush rx buffer */
    while (SPIM_CAN_GetRxBufferSize())

    /* wait until Tx FIFO becomes empty */    

    CY_SET_REG8(SPIM_CAN_TXDATA_PTR, CAN_CTL_READ); // push instruction
    CY_SET_REG8(SPIM_CAN_TXDATA_PTR, address);      // push address

    // loop until all bytes are retrieved
    while (length > 0) {
        // transmit 0 to receive a byte
        if (to_write > 0 && (SPIM_CAN_TX_STATUS_REG & SPIM_CAN_STS_TX_FIFO_NOT_FULL)) {
            CY_SET_REG8(SPIM_CAN_TXDATA_PTR, 0);
        // retrieve a byte if there is any in Rx FIFO
            *data++ = CY_GET_REG8(SPIM_CAN_RXDATA_PTR);

Tried reading 16 bytes from MCP2515 using this read function from a 4MHz-clock SPI of a PSoC Pionner Kit. The CS (Enable) signal stays low during the operation, as expected.



Module Descriptor and Compiled Parameter Table

I tried Google Protocol Buffers to describe and transfer modules’ schema before. This approach, however, did not work well because it required large amount of resources both in program and in RAM spaces of a PSoC processor. It limited available resources for module functionality. I finally gave up the approach.

I am trying another approach to describe a module using JSON and to compile it into a parameter table implemented using C macros. The module program does not have to include the schema. Sharing the JSON schema file by Analog 3 modules is good enough. It is nice if the module has the schema internally though. Google Protocol Buffer may help compressing the data in the case.

Here is an example of schema and generated table for MIDI Gateway module:

    "name": "midigw",
    "type": "Module",
    "member": [
            "name": "MIDI channel",
            "type": "NumberSelector",
            "min": 1,
            "max": 16
            "name": "Voices",
            "type": "Selector",
            "choices": ["mono", "duo", "poly 4", "poly 5", "poly 6", "poly 8", "poly 10", "poly 16"]
            "name": "Retrigger",
            "type": "Switch",
            "default": True

#define P_L_VOICES_OFFSET        1
#define P_B_RETRIGGER_OFFSET     2
#define P_BUFFER_SIZE            3

static uint8_t p_buffer[P_BUFFER_SIZE];

#define P_N1_MIDI_CHANNEL (*(uint8_t*)&p_buffer[P_N1_MIDI_CHANNEL_OFFSET])

#define P_L_VOICES       (*(uint8_t*)&p_buffer[P_L_VOICES_OFFSET])
#define P_L_VOICES__MONO     0
#define P_L_VOICES__DUO      1
#define P_L_VOICES__POLY_4   2
#define P_L_VOICES__POLY_5   2
#define P_L_VOICES__POLY_6   2
#define P_L_VOICES__POLY_8   2
#define P_L_VOICES__POLY_10  2
#define P_L_VOICES__POLY_16  2

#define P_B_RETRIGGER (*(uint8_t*)&p_buffer[P_B_RETRIGGER_OFFSET])

USB Serial Communication with PSoC Pioneer Kit

Exchanging data with PSoC Pioneer Kit over serial communication is often useful. The kit CY8CKIT-042 has a built in USB-to-UART utility programmed in the PSoC 6LP device which is used for onboard debugger for the target PSoC 4. It is easy to use. See below.